My personal view of integral life

The Ultimate Guide To Biohacking Your Testosterone: 17 Ways To Maximize Muscle-Building, Libido & Anti-Aging

This long article by Olli Sovijärvi was originally posted in Ben Greenfield‘s website. Here is the story behind it:

“So finally, when I got the text above, I told Olli,”

“Look man…most people have no clue you can shine laser lights on your balls to increase your testosterone, or that there are ways to reverse the damage cell phones can wreak on your gonads, or that once you drop below 30% carbs your testosterone starts to severely decline if you’re an avid exerciser…

…so, can you write an article for me with all these tactics?”

– Ben Greenfield

Read more https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/2016/09/how-to-biohack-your-testosterone/

na%cc%88ytto%cc%88kuva-2016-09-12-kello-20-00-53

Introduction – Most Testosterone Advice Sucks

Biohacking testosterone (aka “T”) has been a hot topic past few years, or decades, or centuries. For example Youtube is full of T-otpimizing podcasts and channels, iTunes has entire podcasts devoted to libido and testosterone, broscience forums are chock full of T advice from around the planet.

You also can find plenty of articles on optimizing T in the web and even bunch of (great) e-books have been released. I have read and studied all of them and beyond. Many relatively promising supplements, pills and tricks sound good but simply don’t work.

I am very grateful for the amazing work on optimizing testosterone put out by guys behind the Anabolic Men -site (especially Ali Kuoppala) from whom I have learned a lot. Thanks also for Christopher Walker, a neuroscientist, who has written a significant amount of information on testosterone, especially training wise (e.g., THOR, Testosterone I/O, Testshock, etc.). I also want to thank a bunch of Finnish guys who have been releasing T-optimizing booklets and reviews. Still, these tricks presented later in the article I have had to dig deep from the depths of Pubmed and literally spent hours and hours of reading every possible study that could potentially find something new on one of the most important hormones there is for men. I even hopped on my unu to go to different gyms and training centers to ask around, luckily that unu I have is the fastest one so I was able to get everywhere I needed to in one day.

Before we jump into these many-probably-never-heard-of-biohacks on optimizing your T, I want to make clear that you have the basics covered. Without adequate training, nutrition, sleep and stress management these tricks won’t be as solid as they could be. You can read more about optimizing sleep, nutrition, stress and exercise from Biohacker’s Handbook.

The Testosterone Basics

Testosterone is an anabolic sex steroid hormone, which is mainly released in Leydig cells of the testes (95%). Testosterone is not just a male hormone, women also produce it in the ovaries but of less magnitude. Men have roughly about 10 times more testosterone than women.(1) Testosterone is derived from cholesterol, ”The mother of all steroids”, even better than ones you could find here http://topsteroidsforsale.com, which is quite a feat.

Testosterone is responsible for mens sexual characteristics: it stimulates the growth of penis and scrotum, increases growth of body and facial hair (which is otherwise highly genetically regulated; so little body hair doesn’t automatically mean low T), impacts an ability to put on muscle mass and lose fat and even affects the tone of the voice by strengthening vocal cords.

Testosterone is also an anti-aging hormone, which means that a healthy level of testosterone throughout your life can make you live longer.(2) In men aged 30 years and older, testosterone levels steadily fall at a rate of about 1% per year.

hpg-jpg-767x1024

Physiology of Testosterone

There is a feedback loop from brain to testes, which controls how much testosterone is being released. The physiological regulation of testosterone begins in hypothalamus which releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). That stimulates the pituitary gland to release two crucial hormones for male health: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In the testes FSH stimulates spermatogenesis (making new sperm cells) and LH stimulates testosterone production. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol.

Produced testosterone enters the blood stream as free testosterone, which is biologically available. Majority (c.a. 98%) of the produced testosterone is then bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) or albumin (another major protein in the blood). For testosterone to become ”active” you want a release of it from the carrier protein and an optimal SHGB levels in the blood.

For testosterone to have an anabolic effect in the body it must bind to an androgen receptor for example in the muscle tissue. Strength training activates these receptors and bioavailable testosterone is then able bind to free androgen receptor sites. After that begins a cascade in the cell which eventually enters DNA and starts protein synthesis. Therefore it is crucial to have a good androgen sensitivity and density (see later hacks for that).

Testosterone is also a hormone that plays a key role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. That is why it has a major influence on body fat composition and muscle mass, especially in the male. Research has over and over again shown that testosterone deficiency is related to various metabolic health problems: increased fat mass (central adiposity), reduced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance possibly leading into metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and even cardiovascular disease (CVD).(3) Testosterone deficiency has been reported in population studies to be associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (mainly linked to CVD).(4) Healthy levels of testosterone also protect from cognitive decline.(5)

Basic life-style hacks for high testosterone

1. Sleep enough — often more is better

The majority of the daily testosterone release in men occurs during sleep. Fragmented sleep and obstructive sleep apnea are associated with reduced testosterone levels. A study released on The Journal of the American Medical Association, found out that one week of sleep restriction (5 hours of sleep per night) decreased testosterone production by 10–15%.(6) Studies have also found out that sleep’s effect on testosterone has an inverted U-shaped curve. Testosterone production increased with increasing sleep duration up to 10 hours after which it decreased.(7)

For ultimate sleep hacks, check out Biohacker’s Handbook’s sleep chapter for free here:
http://biohackingbook.com/

2. Get rid of extra belly fat and be lean

It is generally noticed via research that the higher your body fat percentage the lower the testosterone. The correlation works especially into direction that getting leaner will rise your T levels.(8) ”Longitudinal analyses showing no influence of baseline hormone levels on change in anthropometric measures imply that body composition affects hormone levels and not the reverse.”(9)(10) It has been roughly estimated that a male body fat percentage between 8–14% is optimal regarding testosterone production. Higher fat mass also usually increased aromatase enzyme activity, which converts more testosterone into estrogen.(11) In opposition, too low body fat content can be detrimental for testosterone production.(12)

3. Practice strength training and gain some muscle mass

While practicing strength training and gaining muscle often reduces body fat percentage (which leads into higher testosterone) it also has independent effect on elevating testosterone.(13) Having higher muscle mass is positively correlated with higher testosterone. By lifting medium-heavy weights explosively can stimulate short-term and long-term testosterone production.(14)(15) Training progressively will force your body to adapt to higher and higher testosterone levels via neuromuscular adaptations.(16)

Follow these principles when strength training for optimal T production:

  • Always lift explosively (with perfect form)
  • Lift heavy enough, but not too heavy (to have an optimum force/velocity-curve)
  • Use compound lifts to activate large amounts of muscle mass
  • Focus on body parts that have high density of androgen receptor sites (chest, shoulders, trapezius)
  • Do sprint intervals to maximize force production in minimal time and to activate fast-twitch muscle fibers
  • Do as much work on as much muscle tissue as possible in as short amount of time as possible while staying under the negative stress threshold
  • If your gym is limited, the muscle up exercise is, in my opinion, the king of testosterone-boosting exercises

4. Control your stress levels and meditate

Chronic stress leads eventually into chronically elevated stress hormone (cortisol) levels in the blood. Cortisol is necessary for life, but when excreted too much for too long, it can cause some serious health problems. One of the disadvantages is diminished testosterone secretion, as cortisol and testosterone compete of the same hormonal precursors and raw materials (mainly pregnenolone).(17)(18) For example in military conditions prolonged stress has been shown to significantly lower testosterone secretion.(19)

Implement these well researched strategies into your life to lower stress (my favorite ones):

  • Meditation (in particular) (20) and relaxation exercises such as deep breathing (21)
  • Spending cell-phone free time in the nature and walking (22)
  • Eating enough whole-food carbohydrates (especially in the evening and when having an intense period of exercise) (23)(24)
  • Adaptogenic herbs (ashwagandha in particular) you can get at teas as lumitea(25)
  • Vitamin C (the more stress the more vitamin C) (26)(27)
  • Phosphatidylserine (28)(29)

5. Eat nutrient dense whole foods and get enough (but not too much) calories

Micronutrients

Getting enough and optimal amount of micronutrients is crucial for testosterone production. Measuring your micronutrient status is a crucial step on finding out what your exact situation is. The most important micronutrients for testosterone production are zinc, magnesium, calcium, vitamin D, B vitamins, iodine, selenium, vitamin K2, vitamin A, vitamin E, manganese and boron.(30) Eating a diet rich in nutrients and minerals (read: whole foods) is crucial not just for overall health, but also for optimal T production. Getting a multivitamin supplement on the basis of your personal needs can also be a testosterone saving thing if your diet is lacking something.

Calories

The body needs enough calories to produce adequate amounts of testosterone. With constant and prolonged calorie restriction the body begins to adapt into survival mode, which means that for example reproductive system is not of great importance anymore.(31) The body will conserve energy for vital processes and internal organs.

For optimal testosterone production it is wise to eat at maintenance or a slight calorie surplus. BUT, according to: http://garciniacambogiatopic.com/buy-dr-oz-diet-pills, if you are overweight, a minor calorie deficit and losing weight will actually elevate testosterone production (as explained previously). So, the plan is to get lean first and then eat higher calories for optimal testosterone production and maintenance. Losing weight slowly is a good option here: about 15% calorie deficit doesn’t seem to affect testosterone negatively. But it can affect somewhat negatively your thyroid hormone production.(32)

Macronutrients

When it comes to macros, nearly everybody especially in the fitness industry, talks about protein. There are tons of different protein supplements that are supposed to make you lean and fit. Protein has gained a reputation, that it is the most important macronutrient what comes to building muscle and gaining strength. It is true that protein and especially certain amino acids are essential for life and muscle tissues and that chronic protein malnutrition will cause low testosterone levels.(33)

The caveat here is that you don’t actually need as much protein as you have been told. For most, the recommended daily allowance levels (1.0–1.4 g /kg of bodyweight) are enough for optimal testosterone production. For strength training individuals often recommended protein intake is 1.6–1.8 g / kg of bodyweight. Even athletes that practice strength training do not benefit from extra protein intake (over 2.0 g / kg of bodyweight).(34)

Protein source is also a major factor in testosterone production: a study published in British Journal of Nutrition found out that for example when meat was replaced with soybean protein in healthy men, their testosterone:estradiol ratio decreased significantly.(35)

For optimal testosterone production it seems crucial that you don’t eat too much protein and that you eat enough carbohydrates and fat. One study which compared protein and carbohydrate changes and their hormonal effects found out that when the male subjects went 10-days on a high-protein low-carb diet, their total testosterone levels were 21% lower than what they would have been on a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet. The high-protein diet also caused significantly higher cortisol levels. The diets were equal in total calories and fat.(36)

Another study, which compared ratios of protein to carbohydrates to different fats, found out that diets higher in carbohydrates and saturated+monounsaturated fats than protein were related to higher testosterone production in strength training men.(37) Previous studies have also found out that men who consume a diet containing 20% of fat compared with diets containing 40% fat have significantly lower concentrations of testosterone in the blood.(38) Many other studies also show that getting enough fat from diet is crucial for testosterone production.(39) Also getting enough cholesterol (raw material for steroid hormone production) from diet is critical to optimal hormonal balance.

For men who exercise and especially perform an intensive training micro-cycle it is crucial to eat enough carbohydrates (CHO) to optimize testosterone production. In one study two groups (30% of CHO vs 60% of CHO) were compared in terms of testosterone-to-cortisol-ratio. The study found out that those who ate 60% of carbohydrates had significantly higher free testosterone to cortisol -ratio than the lower carbohydrate group.(40)

The bottom line is this: for optimal testosterone production you shouldn’t go too low in calories (neither too high), shouldn’t consume too much protein (under 2g/kg) or eat too little carbs and too little saturated and mono-unsaturated fats. For me personally the optimal ratio for T production seems to be on a 2500 kcal/day slight deficit (-20-25 % for anti-aging qualities) diet with 98 kg bodyweight looks like this :

1.8g protein/ bodyweight (1.8g x 98 = 176.4 grams = 720 kcal)
40% of total calorie intake fat (1000 kcal = 111 grams)
Rest of the daily energy need from carbohydrates ( 780 kcal = 195 grams)

That means also eating quite a bunch of carbohydrates and still this could be among conventional nutrition advisors called as a ”low carbohydrate diet”.

note: I do every now and then calorie surplus days not to go too low on weekly average calories

You can read from the Anabolic Men’s site the scientific basis for the most important foods that boost testosterone production:
https://www.anabolicmen.com/foods-that-boost-testosterone-naturally/

Based on that, here are my top 12 foods that satisfy the criteria above:

Grass-fed beef & lamb
Organic potatoes
Grass-fed butter
Extra virgin olive oil
Avocados
Dark green leafy vegetables
Pastured organic eggs
Pomegranates
Dark berries such as bilberries
Red onions
Brazil nuts
Raw cacao & chocolate

+ bonus: Celtic sea salt & high-altitude single-origin water-washed coffee

I would suggest that you check out Biohacker’s Handbook’s Nutrition chapter for more information on how to optimize your personal diet.

6. Drink enough water and hydrate yourself

Getting enough water is not only crucial for life but also for optimal hormonal balance. For example just a mild dehydration (1–2%) can raise cortisol levels and thus effect testosterone production. Especially when sweating a lot and during exercise the importance of drinking water is increased.(41) The higher the dehydration the bigger the effects are on raising cortisol (and adrenaline) and lowering testosterone.(42)

On the other hand, drinking too much will also cause problems such as diluting the blood and messing up with sodium balance in the body – even leading to hyponatremia (more precisely hypervolemic hyponatremia) which, when severe, can cause numerous neurological and cardiovascular symptoms.(43) If you drink a lot, use also sea salt to prevent water retention and electrolyte disturbances.

The easiest way to estimate your hydration status is to analyze the color of your urine and the feeling of thirst. If your urine is diluted and pale in color, you have probably drank too much water. Also, if you feel a serious thirst, you are already in a state of mild dehydration.(44)

7. Have regular sex, but don’t ejaculate too often

There hasn’t been conducted any really convincing studies on sex frequency and testosterone correlation in young men. However, one big observational study conducted with 1226 older men (aged 70+) found out that regular sex helped to diminish the decline in testosterone level that occurs naturally with age. The study says:

”We found a consistent association among older men followed over 2 years between the decline in sexual activity and desire, but not in erectile function, with a decrease in serum T. Although these observational findings cannot determine causality, the small magnitude of the decrease in serum T raises the hypothesis that reduced sexual function may reduce serum T rather than the reverse.”(45)

One small study found out that men having sex in a sex club had an average increase of 72% of salivary testosterone after sex. Those masturbating and watching sexual acts raised T only by 11 percent.(46) 

One sexual performance anecdote, mainly from well known athletes, is that sex previous day or even many days before competition hinders athletic performance. But, this topic has actually been researched and busted as a myth.

For example, one study comparing the maximal effort on cycle ergometer found out that having sex 2 hours before athletic performance slightly diminished recovery capacity, while having sex 10 hours before the event had absolutely no effect on performance or recovery.(47) Another study found out that having sexual intercourse 12 hours prior to maximal treadmill effort didn’t have any negative (nor positive) effects on performance.(48)

On the other hand, in traditional Chinese medicine it is a common knowledge that ejaculation turns over Qi (Chi), your life force. This also makes sense, since sperm contains the seeds of life and lots of minerals. Luckily, this topic has also been research by scientists.

One study found out that a short-term abstinence of sex (3 weeks) slightly increased testosterone.(49) Another small study (28 healthy men) could actually verify, that an optimal ejaculation frequency for men testosterone-wise is 7 days. The study found out that on the 7th day of abstinence there was a significant increase in testosterone production (146%).(50) Too long abstinence (e.g. over 3 months) can crash your testosterone production.(51)

So drawing all these together it seems that having sex once a week with a real partner is the best way of elevating your testosterone production.

8. Avoid exposure to endocrine disruptors in plastics, food & water

Endocrine disruptors are synthetic chemicals or natural substances that can alter the endocrine system. Many of the endocrine disruptors are either directly negatively affecting testosterone production or acting as estrogen mimics (like xenoestrogens). These are mainly found in plastics, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, toys, pesticides, preservatives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.(52) They have also been linked to many other health problems like cancer, decreased fertility, metabolic syndrome, hypothyreosis and diabetes.(53)

Avoid these substances:

  • BPA (Bisphenol A)
    • Found in plastics; can lower testosterone levels significantly and cause erectile dysfunction. If you suffer from this then check www.staustinreview.com.
  • BPS (Bisphenol S)
    • Marketed as a ”safer” alternative to BPA found in thermal receipts, plastics and household dust.
    • Has the same negative endocrine effects as BPA
  • Phtalates
    • Found in plastics and cosmetics
    • Men having high phtalates in the urine have lower testosterone levels
  • Parabens
    • Found especially in sun lotions, moisturizers, shampoos, tooth pastes and in other cosmetics as a preservative
    • Function as a xenoestrogen in the body elevating estrogen levels in men (and women)
  • Triclosan & triclocarban
    • Found in antibacterial dilutants, soaps and hand sanitizers
    • Can lower testosterone levels in men by disrupting biosynthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells (54)
  • Benzophenones (BP-1, BP-2 & BP-3)
    • Found mainly in sunscreens functioning as UV filters
    • Can possibly lower testosterone by antagonizing androgen receptors (in English, blocking the receptor sites) and blocking enzymes converting other androgens to testosterone

Reduce your exposure to endocrine disruptors by following these strategies:

  • Avoid the use of plastics as well as you can
  • Switch plastic cups to glass or steel cups & bottles (glass would be optimal)
  • Store leftover food in glass jars
  • Aquire a good tap filter that filters all contaminants and endocrine disrupters (e.g. reverse osmosis & activated charcoal filters)
  • Use only organic & natural ingredient cosmetics
  • Avoid junk food and prefer organic food
  • Minimize the handling time with receipts or use gloves
  • Avoid the use of detergents and flame retardants (and other possible endocrine disrupting chemicals)

9. Raise your basic physical activity but don’t do too much endurance training

Being physically inactive is deleterious to your testosterone production. It has been shown in various studies that sedentary men who engage in regular physical activity raise their testosterone levels significantly.(55)

For example a 12-week period of increased physical activity in a group of obese men showed significant increase in testosterone levels independent of accompanied weight loss induced by a mild calorie deficit.(56) This means that a basic low-level physical activity like walking is an independent testosterone boosting factor. On the flipside,too much endurance training has been shown to lower testosterone levels significantly.(57) One interesting fact is that in endurance athletes low T is an independent factor (possibly impairing testicular function) which is not related to chronically elevated cortisol levels.(58)

10. Increase your androgen receptor density

Besides optimizing testosterone production for optimal actual hormone signaling you need to have a good amount of androgen receptors in your body. Here are some the most researched ways to increase your androgen receptor density.

Intermittent fasting (IF) and longer fasts

The easiest way to prone your androgen receptors for optimal testosterone uptake is intermittent fasting. Simply skipping your breakfast and pushing the first meal of the day as far as you can is a method that works very well. A small study showed that a fast of 12 to 56 hours improved testosterone response up to 180% in lean, but not in obese men.(59)

Another study found out that after 10 day water fast their testosterone had a downward trend of approximately 15–20%. When re-feeding after the prolonged fast with normal meals the participants’ testosterone levels went up significantly higher than before the fasting baseline values. One guy even went from around 600 ng/dl to 1600 ng/dl.(60) The explanation for this phenomenon is that fasting primes your body to be more receptive of testosterone which means higher androgen receptor sensitivity.

Warning: If you are under a chronic stress and have super high cortisol levels all day long, a prolonged fast might not be your thing.
Coffee (especially when fasting)

Coffee blunts hunger, which makes fasting easier. The caffeine in coffee can raise testosterone levels before exercise especially when tired (4mg/kg dosage) (61) and after exercise (240 mg dosage).(62)

Explosive resistance training

There are basic resistance training principles that you want to follow to optimize your androgen receptor density. First, activate large amounts of muscle mass with big compound movements. Second, do every movement as explosively as possible while maintaining a proper form. Third, keep workouts intense and short to avoid excess cortisol release. Fourth, use progressive loading with training (e.g. microloading).(63) Men who do resistance training regularly have higher androgen receptor density than untrained men.(64)

L-carnitine

Carnitine in is a lipid transporter molecule which moves ingested dietary fat via carnitine-acyl-transferases into mitochondia to be oxidized into energy (beta-oxidation). It will also increase androgen receptor activity in cells by providing energy for the receptors.

A 3-week supplementation with 2 grams L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) per day has been shown to upregulate androgen receptor content after exercise, which promotes better recovery from training.(65) Another 3-week supplementation study showed that LCLT reduced the amount of exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, which also meant that a greater number of receptors would be available for hormonal interactions.(66)

Other potential substances
Based on in vitro and animal studies Mucuna pruriens, which contains L-dopa (3–6 %) has a potential of increasing androgen receptor density.(67) I would still be careful with this, because overusing L-dopa may have some side effects such as hypotension, nausea, disorientation and sleepiness. These are more likely if you just use L-dopa medication instead of Mucuna pruriens. One study conducted in humans found out that Mucuna reduced stress and improved sperm quality in infertile men.(68) Similar findings have been seen in a few other studies as well (in infertile men).

If you are asking yourself, should I use forskolin for better results? Based on in vitro studies, Forskolin, which functions as a cAMP activator and further as a PKA stimulator, can stimulate also the density of androgen receptors.(69) There is also a placebo-controlled human study on Forskolin on its effects on recovery and testosterone production.(70) The study has been critizised by many because of the authors’ interest in supplement business and by providing their own product. Forskolin may also cause hepatic side effects if the dosage is too high for too long.

Here is a conclusion on Forskolin drawn together by Suppversity:

”…the almost non-existent human data on the purported testosterone boosting effects, this should be reason enough not to buy more than one bottle for a test-run. After which I highly suggest to do some lab work to see if whatever good or bad you believe you are feeling is an actual boost in T (check T-levels) or hepatic side effects (check ALT, AST & ALP).”(71)

11. Use creatine on a daily basis

Probably everyone who have trained with weights have heard of creatine. It is literally everywhere: in the gyms, in natural stores, supplement sites and even in normal grocery stores. Creatine monohydrate is not a new invention, but rather an old one. The earliest studies on creatine and performance come from the early 1990s.

Creatine is naturally occurring in red meat and in almost all vertebras. It functions in skeletal muscle energy production by increasing the amount of ATP in the cells. The specific energy system is creatine-phosphate or phosphagen system. In the cells creatine phosphate (CP) donates a phosphate to ADP to produce ATP. Creatine phosphate system activates in short and intense bursts of exercise (around 5-8 seconds).

The research behind creatine is MASSIVE. There are nearly 100 peer-reviewed human studies showing that it increases strength, muscle mass and power and affects positively on body composition and sports performance.(72)(73) Quite a few studies have also shown that supplementing with 5 grams of creatine per day increases testosterone and DHT significantly.(74)(75) Especially when beginning with the supplementation the elevation on DHT is especially high.(76) One study showed that creatine also helped to diminish potential harmful effects of short-term overtraining while maintaining higher testosterone levels compared to those who didn’t supplement with creatine.(77)

Longer term usage of creatine has not been shown to have any negative/adverse health effects. An overall trend towards higher testosterone serum levels has been also observed (on average from baseline of 17 nmol/l to 26 nmol/l).(78)

One review done in 2011 concluded that ”…high-dose (>3-5 g/day) creatine supplementation should not be used by individuals with pre-existing renal disease or those with a potential risk for renal dysfunction (diabetes, hypertension, reduced glomerular filtration rate). A pre-supplementation investigation of kidney function might be considered for reasons of safety, but in normal healthy subjects appears unnecessary.”(79)

More Extreme & Lesser-Known Biohacks Fo High Testosterone

We have now covered the basics for optimizing testosterone that you really need to know and do first. Next, I will introduce you methods that have not been really discussed (not at least extensively) and which go into category ”biohack yourself into a T monster”. These methods are also science-based, but in some of the hacks convincing human studies are still to be seen.

1. Electrical (muscle) stimulation

A study done on rat’s gastrocnemius muscle (calf) found out that electrical stimulation induced a rapid increase in the number of androgen receptors in early parts of the stimulation. This again lead to increase in muscle mass by enhancing the muscle sensitivity to androgens.(80)

Another study conducted in humans showed that an electrical stimulation of volunteers’ meridian points (which basically means electro-acupuncture) increased subjects’ concentrations of total testosterone and DHEA-S without affecting LH or FSH (secreted from the pituitary gland).(81)

2. Red light or low-lever laser therapy (on your nuts)

Red light, near infra-red light (NIR) or low-lever laser therapy has been used to treat various conditions from pain and muscle aches to wound healing, skin conditions, osteoarthritis and even depression. These effects are usually local, but near-infrared light has also systemic effects via circulation of blood. You might want to read this super comprehensive article on red light and NIR by a Finnish medical student Vladimir Heiskanen.(82) He has been a key source of information for me regarding the healing effects of red light.

The basis for stimulating testosterone production by shooting red light and near-infra red light especially on your testicles lies on the mechanism how red (or infrared) wavelengths work inside the cell. The key is that they stimulate ATP production in Leydig cells thus increasing the energy available for the cells. This means more testosterone production.

There might be also other mechanisms, which are speculated in ”Red Light Man” site:

”Another potential mechanism involves a separate class of photoreceptive proteins, known as ‘opsin proteins’. The human testes are especially abundant with various of these highly specific photoreceptors including OPN3, which are ‘activated’, much like cytochrome, specifically by wavelengths of light. Stimulation of these testicular proteins by red light induces cellular responses that may ultimately lead to increased testosterone production, amongst other things, although research is still in the preliminary stages regarding these proteins and metabolic pathways. These type of photoreceptive proteins are also found in the eyes and also, interestingly, the brain.”(83)

I haven’t found any human studies on the subject, but according to a few studies done on rats the positive effects on testosterone production are enormous. For example a Korean study found out that low level laser therapy (LLLT) with wavelength of 670nm (which is in border of visible red light and infra-red light) 30 mins per day showed significant increase in serum testosterone by fourth day of the treatment without any harmful tissue penetration.(84) In that study, a wavelength of 808 nm didn’t have any effect on T production. Another study done with rams didn’t show any positive effects on T production with 808 nm wavelength.(85)

Still, that wavelength (800 nm+) might work on humans on the basis of other LLLT studies on different tissues (such as thyroid).

  • Overall, red or infrared light from LED source is generally thought to be a safe therapeutic method
  • Avoid heating the testicles, since the heat will destroy sperm cells and have a negative effect on the Leydig cells
  • Avoid blue light and UV light exposure on testicles (blue light inhibits ATP production in mitochondria)

3. Get cold showers and swims and keep your testicles cool

”In the 1820s, a German farmer named Vincenz Priessnitz started touting a new medical treatment called “hydrotherapy,” which used cold water to cure everything from broken bones to erectile dysfunction. He turned his family’s homestead into a sanitarium, and patients flocked to it in the hope that his cold water cure could help them.

The first hydrotherapy facility opened up in the U.S in 1843, right when the sanitarium craze hit America. By the end of the 19th century, over 200 hydrotherapy/sanitarium resorts existed in the United States the most famous being the Battle Creek Sanitarium founded by John Harvey Kellogg.”(86)

There is no straight-forward evidence that cold therapy would raise testosterone levels. But the indirect evidence exists. One study conducted in 1988 in Finland investigated serum levels of thyroid and adrenal hormones, testosterone, TSH, LH, GH and prolactin in men after a 2-h stay in a cold room (10 degrees Celsius). There were no significant changes in the serum concentration of adrenalin, T3, T4, testosterone, TSH or LH. The serum level of noradrenaline increased from 4.5 to 6.3 nmol L1 (P < 0.01) and those of Cortisol, GH and prolactin fell by 20, 87 and 48% (all P < 0.01). This means that by lowering cortisol you would probably have more of the raw material for testosterone production and less stress response.(87)

The indirect research evidence by in vitro (and animal) studies on optimal testicle function gives us information that the ball sack should be kept cool (under 35 Celsius or 95 Fahrenheit) also for optimal testosterone production.(88) Heat exposure into testicles has been shown to reduce testosterone levels in rats. Also an observational study done on over 6000 men showed that sperm quality and volume were greater in the winter time. This is due to stimulation by FSH and LH secreted from the pituitary gland, which also stimulate testosterone synthesis and secretion.(89)

There are also anecdotes from old school Chinese and Russian powerlifters who iced their balls after training and also before competition. Apparently their goal was to increase performance and testosterone function.

Do these things to improve testicle function:

  • Take cold baths and showers with cool shower head
  • Wear loose boxers or go ”commando” to keep optimal temperature for testicles and to avoid compression
  • Sleep naked or wear just loose pyjamas (no undies)
  • Sleep in a relatively cold room temperature
  • Don’t sit unless it is absolutely necessary

4. Boron

According to a comprehensive research site Examine.com:

”Boron is a dietary mineral that, although it has a daily intake, has not been accepted as an essential vitamin or mineral. I currently does not have a known minimum requirement.”

Boron is found in small amounts in the earth’s soil. It functions as a fortifier in cell walls, in the bone, in reproductive system as well as in the brain. A Boron deficiency (daily intake less than 0.23 mg per day) alters brainwave activity similar to magnesium deficiency by decreasing frontal lobe activity. A deficiency state has been associated with cognitive impairment.

Best food sources for boron are raisins, dried grapes and peaches, almonds, avocado and dried plums. Boron is well absorbed form the intestines.

One human study showed that boron supplementation (10 mg per day) increased free testosterone (via reduction in SHBG) and DHT levels and decreased estrogen levels. Boron supplementation also seems to lower pro-inflammatory cytokines.(90) One study done on bodybuilders found out that supplementing with 2.5 mg of boron did not have any effect on testosterone levels.(91)

A study done on rats showed that boron accumulates in the testes and thus long-term use will probably produce the best benefits of using boron. The same study also showed, that with toxic boron doses it can actually cause testicular lesions. For humans the safe dosage is up to 20 mg per day (the tolerable upper limit).(92)

5. Iodine

Iodine is an essential mineral, which means it must acquired via diet. Iodine is critical in brain and central to the active thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). Severe deficiency in iodine can result in reduced cognition or cretinism. The thyroid gland absorbs iodine from the blood to make thyroid hormones. Approximately 15–20 mg of iodine is concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones. Still, 70% of the body’s iodine is distributed in other tissues such as mammary glands, eyes, salivary glands and testicles.

Iodine is most abundant in seaweed and seaweed based products such as nori. Daily intake of iodine should be at least 75–150 micrograms per day. For adults an upper intake level is 3000 micrograms.

Lack of iodine in the body (especially in the thyroid gland) can cause various health problems. The most common is hypothyroidism. Men with primary hypothyroidism have subnormal responses to luteinizing hormone (and GnRH) and their free testosterone concentrations are also reduced.(93)

It has been noticed in rats that by increasing iodine supplementation the mean weight of the testes also increased quite a bit. However, the epididymal sperm counts went down a bit.(94)

One possible explanation for the higher occurrence of hypothyroidism and hypogonadism in men today when compared to say like 30 years ago, is an increase of environmental toxic halogens like fluorine, chlorine and bromine. When concentrated enough in the body they will replace iodine’s locations inside the cells (especially in thyroid cells and Leydig’s cells).(95)

It is critical to have enough iodine in your system to also optimize testosterone production. Some people have even taken this further by painting their testicles with Lugol’s iodine (which is highly concentrated potassium iodine). The protocol also includes supporting minerals such as selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, oral iodine, co-factors for ATP (B2 and B3 vitamins) and salt.(96) The anecdote by hundreds of testimonials here is that many people did significantly elevate their testosterone production with possible straight stimulation of the Leydig cells by iodine, which would have then lead into removal of other halogens.

I did experiment this with myself several different occasions and at first, I noticed an increase in libido. But, the effect seemed to eventually fade away. The hypothesis for this therapy seems legit, but unfortunately there hasn’t been done any clinical nor animal studies.

A word of caution: Do not take excess iodine and do not over do this (it will cause pain in the scrotum area because of the sensitivity of the skin). This is a potentially dangerous biohack, so be careful. As a medical doctor, I wouldn’t recommend this to my patients right away.

6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields

The elctromagnetic fields emitted from various sources (e.g. mobile phones, microwave owens, wi-fi’s etc.) have been reported to have causative effects on biological systems such as inflammation, radiation and hyperthermia. All of these can disrupt the seminiferous tubules and reduce the Leydig cell population and testosterone concentration (studies done in rats).

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF therapy) has been used successfully to treat various health conditions ranging from bone healing and pain relief to balancing the neuroendocrine system (including hormone production and melatonin levels).(97)

There is exists a study conducted on male Wister rats, which showed that PEMF therapy helped rats to bounce back from microwave radiation in terms of testosterone production and to combat oxidative stress. In fact, rats’ testosterone levels went a bit higher than before the microwave radiation exposure after they were treated with PEMF for 60 days.(98)

Many men keep their mobile phones in their front pockets quite close to testicles. It is a fact that mobile phones emit microwaves that are harmful to normal tissues when kept very close to the skin. A number of studies have shown relationships between mobile telephone use and reduced sperm count and sperm quality.(99)(100)(101) The negative effects are highly likely to extend also on reducing testosterone levels in men.

My hypothesis is this: if you know that you are being exposed to external microwaves and wi-fi’s and cell phones, a PEMF device (locally on the testis) or a more general device on whole body treatment, is likely to revive testosterone levels.

———-

A translation of this article in Finnish is also coming up.

Olli Sovijärvi, M.D., head author of the Biohacker’s Handbook

References:

  1. Bassil N, Morley JE. Late-life onset hypogonadism: a review. Clin Geriatr Med.

    2010 May;26(2):197-222. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2010.02.003. Review.

    http://www.geriatric.theclinics.com/article/S0749-0690(10)00015-7/abstract

  2. Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, Bergstrom J. Low serum testosterone and

    mortality in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;93(1):68-75.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2190742/

  3. Kelly DM, Jones TH. Testosterone: a metabolic hormone in health and disease. J

    Endocrinol. 2013 Apr 29;217(3):R25-45. Review.

    http://joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/217/3/R25.long

  4. Araujo AB, Dixon JM, Suarez EA, Murad MH, Guey LT, Wittert GA. Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;96(10):3007-3019.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3200249/

  5. Beauchet O. Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of

    a relationship. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Dec;155(6):773-81. Review.

    http://www.eje-online.org/content/155/6/773.long

  6. Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on

    testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA. 2011 Jun 1;305(21):2173-4.

    http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1029127

  7. Auyeung TW, Kwok T, Leung J, Lee JS, Ohlsson C, Vandenput L, Wing YK, Woo J.

    Sleep Duration and Disturbances Were Associated With Testosterone Level, Muscle

    Mass, and Muscle Strength–A Cross-Sectional Study in 1274 Older Men. J Am Med

    Dir Assoc. 2015 Jul 1;16(7):630.e1-6.

    http://www.jamda.com/article/S1525-8610(15)00294-7/abstract

  8. Camacho EM, Huhtaniemi IT, O’Neill TW, Finn JD, Pye SR, Lee DM, Tajar A,

    Bartfai G, Boonen S, Casanueva FF, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Kula K, Keevil

    B, Lean ME, Pendleton N, Punab M, Vanderschueren D, Wu FC; EMAS Group.

    Age-associated changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in

    middle-aged and older men are modified by weight change and lifestyle factors:

    longitudinal results from the European Male Ageing Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013

    Feb 20;168(3):445-55.

    http://www.eje-online.org/content/168/3/445.long

  9. Gates MA, Mekary RA, Chiu GR, Ding EL, Wittert GA, Araujo AB. Sex steroid

    hormone levels and body composition in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013

    Jun;98(6):2442-50.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667256/

  10. Mogri M, Dhindsa S, Quattrin T, Ghanim H, Dandona P. Testosterone

    concentrations in young pubertal and post-pubertal obese males. Clin Endocrinol

    (Oxf). 2013 Apr;78(4):593-9.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524388/

  11. Cohen PG. The hypogonadal-obesity cycle: role of aromatase in modulating the

    testosterone-estradiol shunt–a major factor in the genesis of morbid obesity.

    Med Hypotheses. 1999 Jan;52(1):49-51.

    http://www.medical-hypotheses.com/article/S0306-9877(97)90624-1/abstract

  12. Rossow LM, Fukuda DH, Fahs CA, Loenneke JP, Stout JR. Natural bodybuilding

    competition preparation and recovery: a 12-month case study. Int J Sports Physiol

    Perform. 2013 Sep;8(5):582-92.

    http://www.fitnessforlife.org/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/18Rossow%2020120293_582-592_ej.pdf

  13. Lado-Abeal J, Prieto D, Lorenzo M, Lojo S, Febrero M, Camarero E,

    Cabezas-Cerrato J. Differences between men and women as regards the effects of

    protein-energy malnutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Nutrition. 1999 May;15(5):351-8.

    http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(99)00051-9/abstract

  14. Kraemer WJ, Staron RS, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS, Fry AC, Gordon SE, Nindl BC,

    Gothshalk LA, Volek JS, Marx JO, Newton RU, Häkkinen K. The effects of short-term

    resistance training on endocrine function in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol

    Occup Physiol. 1998 Jun;78(1):69-76.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s004210050389#page-1

  15. Craig BW, Brown R, Everhart J. Effects of progressive resistance training on

    growth hormone and testosterone levels in young and elderly subjects. Mech Ageing

    Dev. 1989 Aug;49(2):159-69.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0047637489900997

  16. Häkkinen K, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kauhanen H, Komi PV. Neuromuscular and

    hormonal adaptations in athletes to strength training in two years. J Appl

    Physiol (1985). 1988 Dec;65(6):2406-12.

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/65/6/2406.short

  17. Cumming DC, Quigley ME, Yen SS. Acute suppression of circulating testosterone

    levels by cortisol in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Sep;57(3):671-3.

    http://press.endocrine.org/doi/10.1210/jcem-57-3-671?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed

  18. Roy M, Kirschbaum C, Steptoe A. Intraindividual variation in recent stress

    exposure as a moderator of cortisol and testosterone levels. Ann Behav Med. 2003

    Dec;26(3):194-200.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1207/S15324796ABM2603_04

  19. Rose RM, Bourne PG, Poe RO, Mougey EH, Collins DR, Mason JW. Androgen

    responses to stress. II. Excretion of testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone

    and etiocholanolone during basic combat training and under threat of attack.

    Psychosom Med. 1969 Sep-Oct;31(5):418-36.

    http://journals.lww.com/psychosomaticmedicine/Abstract/1969/09000/Androgen_Responses_to_Stress__II__Excretion_of.8.aspx

  20. Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, Berger Z,

    Sleicher D, Maron DD, Shihab HM, Ranasinghe PD, Linn S, Saha S, Bass EB,

    Haythornthwaite JA. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being:

    a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):357-68.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142584/

  21. Perna FM, Antoni MH, Kumar M, Cruess DG, Schneiderman N. Cognitive-behavioral

    intervention effects on mood and cortisol during exercise training. Ann Behav

    Med. 1998 Spring;20(2):92-8.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02884454

  22. Park BJ, Tsunetsugu Y, Kasetani T, Kagawa T, Miyazaki Y. The physiological

    effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing):

    evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan. Environ Health Prev

    Med. 2010 Jan;15(1):18-26.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2793346/

  23. Anderson KE, Rosner W, Khan MS, New MI, Pang SY, Wissel PS, Kappas A.

    Diet-hormone interactions: protein/carbohydrate ratio alters reciprocally the

    plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol and their respective binding globulins

    in man. Life Sci. 1987 May 4;40(18):1761-8.

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/82/1/49

  24. Costa RJ, Jones GE, Lamb KL, Coleman R, Williams JH. The effects of a high

    carbohydrate diet on cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) during a

    period of increase exercise workload amongst Olympic and Ironman triathletes. Int

    J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):880-5.

    https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2005-837467

  25. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized

    double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a

    high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress

    and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573577/

  26. Davison G, Gleeson M. Influence of acute vitamin C and/or carbohydrate

    ingestion on hormonal, cytokine, and immune responses to prolonged exercise. Int

    J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Oct;15(5):465-79.

    http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/ijsnem.15.5.465?journalCode=ijsnem

  27. Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schürmeyer TH. A randomized controlled trial of

    high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective

    responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002

    Jan;159(3):319-24.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-001-0929-6

  28. Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S. The influence of phosphatidylserine

    supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr

    Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78.

    https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-5-11

  29. Starks MA, Starks SL, Kingsley M, Purpura M, Jäger R. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2008;5:11. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-11.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503954/

  30. Kuoppala, A. (2015). Multivitamin for Testosterone: Correcting Micronutrient Deficiencies Can Significantly Boost your T Levels. Anabolic Men website.

    https://www.anabolicmen.com/multivitamin-testosterone/

  31. Cangemi R, Friedmann AJ, Holloszy JO, Fontana L. Long-term effects of calorie restriction on serum sex hormone concentrations in men. Aging cell. 2010;9(2):236-242.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3569090/

  32. Garrel DR, Todd KS, Pugeat MM, Calloway DH. Hormonal changes in normal men

    under marginally negative energy balance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Jun;39(6):930-6.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6539064

  33. Lado-Abeal J, Prieto D, Lorenzo M, Lojo S, Febrero M, Camarero E,

    Cabezas-Cerrato J. Differences between men and women as regards the effects of

    protein-energy malnutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Nutrition. 1999 May;15(5):351-8.

    http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(99)00051-9/abstract

  34. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Falvo MJ, Faigenbaum AD. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2006;3(2):12-18.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2129168/

  35. Habito RC, Montalto J, Leslie E, Ball MJ. Effects of replacing meat with

    soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in healthy adult males. Br J Nutr. 2000 Oct;84(4):557-63.

    http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=906928&jid=BJN&volumeId=84&issueId=04&aid=906924&fulltext

  36. Anderson KE, Rosner W, Khan MS, New MI, Pang SY, Wissel PS, Kappas A.

    Diet-hormone interactions: protein/carbohydrate ratio alters reciprocally the

    plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol and their respective binding globulins

    in man. Life Sci. 1987 May 4;40(18):1761-8.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0024320587900865

  37. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush, JA, Incledon T, Boetes M. Testosterone and cortisol relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 1997;82(1):49–54.

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/82/1/49

  38. Hämäläinen E, Adlercreutz H, Puska P, Pietinen P. Diet and serum sex hormones

    in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 Jan;20(1):459-64.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022473184902541

  39. Reed MJ, Cheng RW, Simmonds M, Richmond W, James VH. Dietary lipids: an

    additional regulator of plasma levels of sex hormone binding globulin. J Clin

    Endocrinol Metab. 1987 May;64(5):1083-5.

    http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jcem.85.1.6291

  40. Lane AR, Duke JW, Hackney AC. Influence of dietary carbohydrate intake on the

    free testosterone: cortisol ratio responses to short-term intensive exercise

    training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Apr;108(6):1125-31.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-009-1220-5

  41. Maresh CM, Whittlesey MJ, Armstrong LE, Yamamoto LM, Judelson DA, Fish KE,

    Casa DJ, Kavouras SA, Castracane VD. Effect of hydration state on testosterone

    and cortisol responses to training-intensity exercise in collegiate runners. Int

    J Sports Med. 2006 Oct;27(10):765-70.

    https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2005-872932

  42. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Yamamoto LM, Farrell MJ, Armstrong LE, Kraemer WJ,

    Volek JS, Spiering BA, Casa DJ, Anderson JM. Effect of hydration state on

    resistance exercise-induced endocrine markers of anabolism, catabolism, and

    metabolism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Sep;105(3):816-24.

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/105/3/816.long

  43. Ball SG, Iqbal Z. Diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Best Pract Res

    Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Mar;30(2):161-73. Review.

    http://www.bprcem.com/article/S1521-690X(15)00137-2/abstract

  44. Millard-Stafford M, Wendland DM, O’Dea NK, Norman TL. Thirst and hydration

    status in everyday life. Nutr Rev. 2012 Nov;70 Suppl 2:S147-51.

    http://nutritionreviews.oxfordjournals.org/content/70/suppl_2/S147.long

  45. Hsu B, Cumming RG, Blyth FM, Naganathan V, Le Couteur DG, Seibel MJ, Waite LM,

    Handelsman DJ. The longitudinal relationship of sexual function and androgen

    status in older men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project. J Clin

    Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr;100(4):1350-8.

    http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2014-4104

  46. Escasa MJ, Casey JF, Gray PB. Salivary testosterone levels in men at a U.S.

    sex club. Arch Sex Behav. 2011 Oct;40(5):921-6.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-010-9711-3?no-access=true

  47. Sztajzel J, Périat M, Marti V, Krall P, Rutishauser W. Effect of sexual

    activity on cycle ergometer stress test parameters, on plasmatic testosterone

    levels and on concentration capacity. A study in high-level male athletes

    performed in the laboratory. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000 Sep;40(3):233-9

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11125766

  48. Boone T, Gilmore S. Effects of sexual intercourse on maximal aerobic power,

    oxygen pulse, and double product in male sedentary subjects. J Sports Med Phys

    Fitness. 1995 Sep;35(3):214-7.

    http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8775649

  49. Exton MS, Krüger TH, Bursch N, Haake P, Knapp W, Schedlowski M, Hartmann U.

    Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a

    3-week sexual abstinence. World J Urol. 2001 Nov;19(5):377-82.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s003450100222

  50. Jiang M, Xin J, Zou Q, Shen JW. A research on the relationship between

    ejaculation and serum testosterone level in men. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. 2003

    Mar-Apr;4(2):236-40.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1631/jzus.2003.0236

  51. Jannini EA, Screponi E, Carosa E, Pepe M, Lo Giudice F, Trimarchi F, Benvenga

    S. Lack of sexual activity from erectile dysfunction is associated with a

    reversible reduction in serum testosterone. Int J Androl. 1999 Dec;22(6):385-92.

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2605.1999.00196.x/full

  52. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. (2015). Endocrine Disruptors.

    http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/

  53. De Coster S, van Larebeke N. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2012;2012:713696.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443608/

  54. Kumar V, Balomajumder C, Roy P. Disruption of LH-induced testosterone

    biosynthesis in testicular Leydig cells by triclosan: probable mechanism of

    action. Toxicology. 2008 Sep 4;250(2-3):124-31.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300483X08002850

  55. Vaamonde D, Da Silva-Grigoletto ME, García-Manso JM, Barrera N, Vaamonde-Lemos

    R. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than

    sedentary men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Sep;112(9):3267-73.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-011-2304-6

  56. Kumagai H, Zempo-Miyaki A, Yoshikawa T, Tsujimoto T, Tanaka K, Maeda S.

    Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on

    lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone. J Clin Biochem Nutr.

    2016 Jan;58(1):84-9.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706091/

  57. Wheeler GD, Singh M, Pierce WD, Epling WF, Cumming DC. Endurance training

    decreases serum testosterone levels in men without change in luteinizing hormone

    pulsatile release. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Feb;72(2):422-5.

    http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jcem-72-2-422

  58. Hackney AC, Sinning WE, Bruot BC. Reproductive hormonal profiles of

    endurance-trained and untrained males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988 Feb;20(1):60-5

    http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/3343919

  59. Röjdmark S, Asplund A, Rössner S. Pituitary-testicular axis in obese men

    during short-term fasting. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 Nov;121(5):727-32.

    http://www.eje-online.org/content/121/5/727.short

  60. Klibanski A, Beitins IZ, Badger T, Little R, McArthur JW. Reproductive

    function during fasting in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Aug;53(2):258-63.

    http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jcem-53-2-258

  61. Cook C, Beaven CM, Kilduff LP, Drawer S. Acute caffeine ingestion’s increase

    of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep. Int J Sport

    Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Jun;22(3):157-64.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22349085

  62. Paton CD, Lowe T, Irvine A. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint

    performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. Eur J

    Appl Physiol. 2010 Dec;110(6):1243-50.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-010-1620-6

  63. Willoughby DS, Taylor L. Effects of sequential bouts of resistance exercise on

    androgen receptor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Sep;36(9):1499-506.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8359974_Effects_of_Sequential_Bouts_of_Resistance_Exercise_on_Androgen_Receptor_Expression

  64. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance

    exercise and training. Sports Med. 2005;35(4):339-61. Review.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200535040-00004

  65. Kraemer WJ, Spiering BA, Volek JS, Ratamess NA, Sharman MJ, Rubin MR, French

    DN, Silvestre R, Hatfield DL, Van Heest JL, Vingren JL, Judelson DA, Deschenes

    MR, Maresh CM. Androgenic responses to resistance exercise: effects of feeding

    and L-carnitine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jul;38(7):1288-96. Erratum in: Med

    Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Oct;38(10):1861.

    http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2006/07000/Androgenic_Responses_to_Resistance_Exercise_.13.aspx

  66. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, French DN, Rubin MR, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Ratamess NA,

    Newton RU, Jemiolo B, Craig BW, Häkkinen K. The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate

    supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J

    Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):455-62.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10604648_The_Effects_of_L-Carnitine_L-Tartrate_Supplementation_on_Hormonal_Responses_to_Resistance_Exercise_and_Recovery

  67. Margiotti K, Wafa LA, Cheng H, Novelli G, Nelson CC, Rennie PS.

    Androgen-regulated genes differentially modulated by the androgen receptor

    coactivator L-dopa decarboxylase in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2007

    Jun 6;6:38.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1904238/

  68. Shukla, K. K., Mahdi, A. A., Ahmad, M. K., Jaiswar, S. P., Shankwar, S. N., & Tiwari, S. C. (2010). Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 7(1), 137–144.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816389/

  69. Nazareth LV, Weigel NL. Activation of the human androgen receptor through a

    protein kinase A signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 16;271(33):19900-7.

    http://www.jbc.org/content/271/33/19900.long

  70. Godard MP, Johnson BA, Richmond SR. Body composition and hormonal adaptations

    associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 2005

    Aug;13(8):1335-43.

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2005.162/full

  71. http://suppversity.blogspot.fi/2012/12/forskolin-friend-or-foe-stories-and.html
  72. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and

    performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003

    Jun;13(2):198-226.

    http://fitnessforlife.org/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/1267.pdf

  73. Cooper R, Naclerio F, Allgrove J, Jimenez A. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9:33.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407788/

  74. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. Effect of

    creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses

    in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Aug;16(4):430-46.

    https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-6-5

  75. Arazi H, Rahmaniania F, Hosseini K. Asadi A. Effects of short term creatine supplementation and resistance exercises on resting hormonal and cardiovascular responses Science & Sports 30 (2): 105–109.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0765159715000039

  76. van der Merwe J, Brooks NE, Myburgh KH. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate

    supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged

    rugby players. Clin J Sport Med. 2009 Sep;19(5):399-404.

    http://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2009&issue=09000&article=00009&type=abstract

  77. Volek JS, Ratamess NA, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, French DN, McGuigan MM, Scheett TP,

    Sharman MJ, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ. The effects of creatine supplementation on

    muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance

    training overreaching. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 May;91(5-6):628-37.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-003-1031-z

  78. Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, Kearney JT, Johnson M, Coglianese R, Smith L,

    O’Bryant HS, Fry AC, Starks M, Keith R, Stone ME. Creatine supplementation and

    health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001

    Feb;33(2):183-8.

    http://general.utpb.edu/fac/eldridge_j/kine6362/readings/nut5.pdf

  79. Kim HJ, Kim CK, Carpentier A, Poortmans JR. Studies on the safety of creatine

    supplementation. Amino Acids. 2011 May;40(5):1409-18. Review.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-011-0878-2

  80. Inoue K, Yamasaki S, Fushiki T, Kano T, Moritani T, Itoh K, Sugimoto E. Rapid

    increase in the number of androgen receptors following electrical stimulation of

    the rat muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1993;66(2):134-40.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01427054

  81. Kim, J. Effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on the change of male sex hormones in normal men. Toxicol. Environ. Health. Sci. (2013). 5: 20.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13530-013-0151-z

  82. Heiskanen. V. (2013). Red Light and Hear-Infrared Radiation: Powerful Healing Tools You’ve Never Heard Of. 180 Degree Health.

    http://180degreehealth.com/red-light-infrared-radiation-powerful-healing-tools-youve-heard/

  83. https://redlightman.com/blog/red-light-triples-testicle-health-function/
  84. Jin-Chul Ahn, Young-Hoon Kim & Chung-Ku Rhee. The effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the testis in elevating serum testosterone level in rats.  Biomedical Research 2013; 24 (1): 28-32.

    http://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/the-effects-of-low-level-laser-therapy-lllt-on-the-testis-in-elevatingserum-testosterone-level-in-rats.pdf

  85. Alves MB, de Arruda RP, Batissaco L, Florez-Rodriguez SA, de Oliveira BM,

    Torres MA, Ravagnani GM, Lançoni R, de Almeida TG, Storillo VM, Vellone VS,

    Franci CR, Thomé HE, Canella CL, De Andrade AF, Celeghini EC. Low-level laser

    therapy to recovery testicular degeneration in rams: effects on seminal

    characteristics, scrotal temperature, plasma testosterone concentration, and

    testes histopathology. Lasers Med Sci. 2016 May;31(4):695-704.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10103-016-1911-1

  86. http://www.artofmanliness.com/2010/01/18/the-james-bond-shower-a-shot-of-cold-water-for-health-and-vitality/
  87. Leppäluoto J, Korhonen I, Huttunen P, Hassi J. Serum levels of thyroid and

    adrenal hormones, testosterone, TSH, LH, GH and prolactin in men after a 2-h stay

    in a cold room. Acta Physiol Scand. 1988 Apr;132(4):543-8.

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1988.tb08363.x/abstract

  88. Okuyama A, Koh E, Kondoh N, Nakamura M, Namiki M, Fujioka H, Mizutani S,

    Kiyohara H, Sonoda T. In vitro temperature sensitivity of DNA, RNA, and protein

    syntheses throughout puberty in human testis. Arch Androl. 1991

    Jan-Feb;26(1):7-13.

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01485019108987619

  89. Levitas E, Lunenfeld E, Weisz N, Friger M, Har-Vardi I. Seasonal variations of

    human sperm cells among 6455 semen samples: a plausible explanation of a seasonal

    birth pattern. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):406.e1-6.

    http://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(13)00146-4/abstract

  90. Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asgari AR, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MS. Comparative effects

    of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and

    proinflammatory cytokines. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011 Jan;25(1):54-8.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X10001148

  91. Ferrando AA, Green NR. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass,

    plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr.

    1993 Jun;3(2):140-9.

    http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8508192

  92. Lee IP, Sherins RJ, Dixon RL. Evidence for induction of germinal aplasia in

    male rats by environmental exposure to boron. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1978

    Aug;45(2):577-90.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0041008X78901199

  93. Meikle AW. The interrelationships between thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism

    in men and boys. Thyroid. 2004;14 Suppl 1:S17-25. Review.

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/105072504323024552

  94. Shoyinka SV, Obidike IR, Ndumnego CO. Effect of iodine supplementation on

    thyroid and testicular morphology and function in euthyroid rats. Vet Res Commun.

    2008 Dec;32(8):635-45.

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11259-008-9065-7

  95. llain P, Berre S, Krari N, et al. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1993;46(5):456-458.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC501258/

  96. Anabolic Men. The Secret That Doubles Testosterone. 2014.

    https://issuu.com/anabolicmen/docs/the_secret_that_doubles_testosteron

  97. Hupak NM. Therapeutic uses of pulsed magnetic-field exposure: A review. Radio Science Bulletin. 2003;307:9–32.

    https://www.curatron.com/download-attachment/2069/

  98. Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics. 2011;66(7):1237-1245.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148471/

  99. Ghanbari M, Mortazavi SB, Khavanin A, Khazaei M. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats. International Journal of Fertility & Sterility. 2013;7(1):21-28.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850324/

  100. Gorpinchenko I, Nikitin O, Banyra O, Shulyak A. The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality. Central European Journal of Urology. 2014;67(1):65-71.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074720/

  101. Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile

    telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int.

    2014 Sep;70:106-12.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014001354

Advertisements

Tagged as: , , , , , ,

Categorised in: Biohacker's Handbook, Biohacking, Nutrition, Physiology, Science, Sports, Testosterone

1 Response »

  1. Voi kun osaisin englantia paremmin… tai voi kun näitä sais suomeksi…

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

RSS Helsinki Paleo

  • Kun uni ei tule June 12, 2017
        Moni uniongelmista kärsivä on kokeillut jo todella monia keinoja parempia unia tavoitellessaan. Osa kokee, että on kokeillut jo ihan kaikkea! Mutta silti uni ei ota tullakseen. Esimerkkejä yleisesti kokeilluista keinoista ovat: – Melatoniinitabletin ottaminen yötä vasten – Rauhoittavien äänien kuuntelu, kuten aallot tai muut luonnon äänet – Elektronisten […]
    Jaakko Savolahti
  • Kesän 2017 leirit Lohjansaaressa April 3, 2017
      Luonnollista liikettä ja lepoa. Luonnonrauhaa ja lintujen laulua. Puissa kiipeilyä ja rentoa yhteisöllisyyttä. Kesällä 2017 leireillään taas Lohjansaaressa ja nautiskellaan kesästä ja inspiroivasta seurasta! Luonnollisen liikkumisen leiri järjestetään 4.-6.7. ja sen perään Lepoleiri 7.-9.7. Molemmille leireille osallistuville on tiedossa erikoisalennus :) […]
    Jaakko Savolahti
  • 9 väärinkäsitystä paleosta March 7, 2017
        Esittelen tässä tekstissä yhdeksän harhaluuloa tai väärinkäsitystä paleosta, joihin törmään usein. 1. Paleo on lihapainotteinen ruokavalio Monet mieltävät paleon lihapainotteiseksi ruokavalioksi. Ehkä siksi, että siinä suositaan eläinperäisiä proteiinin lähteitä niiden kattavan aminohappokoostumuksen takia. Ne myös sisältävät kasviproteiineihin verrattun […]
    Jaakko Savolahti
%d bloggers like this: